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Medical Conditions

  • An allergy is a state of over-reactivity or hypersensitivity of the immune system to a particular substance called an allergen. Most allergens are proteins. Most allergens are proteins from plants, insects, animals, or foods.

  • Commonly called 'anal glands', the anal sacs are two small pouches located on either side of the anus at approximately the four o'clock and eight o'clock positions. Numerous specialized sebaceous (sweat) glands that produce a foul smelling secretion line the walls of the sacs. Each sac is connected to the outside by a small duct that opens just inside the anus.

  • Bladder stones (uroliths or cystic calculi) are rock-like formations of minerals that develop in the urinary bladder. There may be a large, single stone or a collection of stones that range in size from sand-like grains to gravel.

  • Bladder stones (uroliths or cystic calculi) are rock-like formations of minerals that develop in the urinary bladder. There may be a large, single stone or a collection of stones that range in size from sand-like grains to gravel. It is common for a mixture of both small and large stones to be present.

  • Colitis simply refers to inflammation of the large intestine or colon. Colitis is most commonly used to describe diarrhea or loose stools associated with the large bowel. Large bowel diarrhea is also used synonymously with colitis.

  • Pet birds often become ill. While most avian diseases can affect every species, some species are more prone to develop certain conditions. By being familiar with the various conditions that commonly affect a certain species, your veterinarian is able to formulate a diagnostic and treatment protocol that is most likely to result in a correct diagnosis and cure for your bird's illness.

  • Any medical term that ends in -itis means "inflammation of". Conjunctivitis is defined as inflammation of the conjunctiva. The conjunctiva is a mucous membrane, similar to the lining of the mouth and nose. This membrane, a layer of epithelial cells with mucus-secreting cells, covers the eyeball and lines the eyelids.

  • The conjunctiva is the lining tissue that covers the globe of the eye (the eyeball) and lines the eyelids and the third eyelid. Conjunctivitis refers to inflammation of this tissue.

  • The cornea is the clear, glistening membrane that makes up the surface of the eyeball. A penetration or erosion through a few layers of the outermost corneal epithelium is called a corneal erosion or corneal abrasion. A corneal ulcer is a deeper erosion through the entire epithelium down into the stroma.

  • The cornea is the transparent, shiny membrane that makes up the front of the eyeball. Think of it as a clear windowpane. To understand a corneal ulcer, you must first know how the cornea is constructed.

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